Discipline Need Not Be Punitive

I have a few questions.
1.) The school I work in is very entrenched in the idea that discipline EQUALS punishment. The students buy into this idea in that they seem to depend on punitive reactions from their teachers and parents. Teaching students what you expect seems not enough. How does one help the child to move from being punishment-minded to being self-motivated?

2.) I have read several books that work with similar ideas to yours. "Without Boundaries" by Janet Wood, "The Continuum Concept" by Jean Liedloff, and materials on Taking Children Seriously (an educational/parenting/human relations theory). They make a great deal of sense to me, but I am at a loss as to how to implement this kind of teaching of right/wrong, appropriate/ inappropriate behavior to the youngest of children (birth to toddler). Most of us were raised in a way that is very different from this approach, so without a working model, it is difficult to put into practice. I have done my best based on what I have read, but still feel I could understand it better.

1) Share with the faculty the National parent Teachers Association's definition of discipline:
"To many people, discipline means punishment. But, actually, to discipline means to teach. Rather than punishment, discipline should be a positive way of helping and guiding children to achieve self-control." (Discipline: A parent's Guide ,  Copyright 1993 by the National PTA)

To do it, teach your students the four levels of social development described in Chapter 3 of the book, "Discipline without Stress® Punishments or Rewards." A description of the Raise Responsibility is also on the site www.MarvinMarshall.com.

THE MOST EFFECTIVE DISCIPLINE IS NOT PUNITIVE. Self-evaluation and self-change is far more effective.